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A Comparison of the FARO Freestyle 2 handheld scanner to the FARO S350 Plus Laser Scanner for Bullet Trajectory Analysis

Eugene Liscio & Jihwa Lim

 ai2-3D Forensics, Ontario, Canada


Abstract: The introduction of three-dimensional (3D) terrestrial laser scanning technology to document trajectories has greatly facilitated shooting scene documentation, especially in complex environments where large numbers of projectile impacts may be found. With the availability of lower cost, handheld scanners, additional options are available to crime scene investigators. This study compares the FARO Freestyle 2 handheld scanner to the FARO Focus S350 terrestrial laser scanner. The testing was conducted by firing three different firearms with calibers, .22 Colt, 9×19 mm, and .45 ACP, at a 2002 Honda Civic vehicle. Each firearm was fired 10 times for a total number of 30 bullet impacts (n=30). Trajectory rods were placed at each bullet impact site and the vehicle was scanned with a terrestrial laser scanner and a handheld scanner. The overall mean errors of the Freestyle 2 when compared to the ground truth values of the FARO S350 scanner was found to be -0.09° for the azimuth (horizontal angle) and 0.24° for the elevation (vertical angle). The overall mean absolute errors were 0.45° and 0.46° for the azimuth and elevation angles, respectively. This study indicates that the FARO Freestyle 2 can provide accurate point cloud data sufficient for trajectory analysis that is comparable to terrestrial laser scanners from past studies.


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