A Preliminary Validation for the FARO Zone 3D Area of Origin Tool
Abstract: The use of laser scanners and other three-dimensional (3D) technologies to document and analyze bloodstains has been the subject of previous papers, especially where area of origin analysis is concerned. Both HemoSpat and FARO Scene are commonly found in literature where they have been used to provide area of origin analysis for impact stains. The data for this study was collected and analyzed using FARO Zone 3D Software on Wednesday, March 7th, 2018 at the annual Association for Crime Scene Reconstruction (ACSR) conference in Tacoma, Washington, USA. In all, 14 participants analyzed a single bloodstain impact pattern and the accuracy and inter-observer errors were obtained. Overall, it was shown that the average error for all participants was approximately 5.7 cm from the known position. The maximum absolute errors for the x, y, and z axes were 1.1 cm, 3.3 cm, and 4.5 cm, respectively. The standard deviation between examiners was 2.5 cm, 2.1 cm, and 3.1 cm for the x, y, and z axes, respectively.